Migraine (together with Tension-Type Headache and Medication-Overuse Headache) is the most common, burdensome headache disorders and the most relevant from a public health perspective. These three disorders affect men, women and children in every part of the world, including over half of Europe’s adults.¹ However, headache disorders remain under-diagnosed and under-treated throughout Europe. In terms of funding and research, despite its prevalence, headache is often overlooked by key decision-makers.²
Migraine is a primary headache disorder, probably with a genetic basis. Activation of a mechanism deep in the brain causes release of pain-producing inflammatory substances around the nerves and blood vessels of the head. Why this happens periodically and what brings the process to an end in spontaneous resolution of attacks is uncertain.³
Parkinson’s is a chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects the motor system and has variable non-motor components including cognitive and autonomic changes.¹
The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are mainly caused by loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain but exactly why dopamine-producing cells become lost is unclear. The Parkinson’s has different symptoms, but the most common are tremor, muscle rigidity and slowness of movement.
Currently there is no treatment available to slow down or reverse the disease. The goal of the treatment is to reduce symptoms with as few side effects as possible.
Schizophrenia is a long-term condition that results from changes in the mind and causes a range of different psychological symptoms¹ such as hallucinations and delusions.
People with schizophrenia require lifelong treatment. Anyone can develop schizophrenia: it can affect men and women in the same proportion and can develop
in people of any age, although usually the first symptoms appear before the twenties
Major depressive disorder (simply known as clinical depression or just depression) is a mental disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. Depression is characterized by extended periods of low mood. It can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems and can negatively affect a person’s personal life as well as sleeping, eating habits, and general health decrease a person’s ability to function at work and at home.