The European Brain Council is a unique organisation bringing together pan-European bodies representing neurologists, basic neuroscientists, neurosurgeons, psychiatrists, neuro-pharmacologists as well as patients federations and relevant areas of industries. In consequence, the EBC has to deal with many different aspects induced by brain disorders, be it the diseases themselves, research, treatment or improved quality of life of patients.

One of EBC’s main missions is to raise awareness on the importance of brain research in order to improve the lives of those living with brain conditions – neurological and mental alike. This also entails raising awareness on the large number of brain conditions that exist and to shed light on living with them. There are over 600 neurological diseases[1] and nearly 300 psychiatric conditions[2] noted today.

Below you will find factsheets on a selection of neurological and psychiatric conditions; a library that EBC is working on developing and keeping up to date:

Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative brain disease and the most common form of dementia. Dementia, which is not a specific disease but an overall term that describes a group of symptoms¹, is characterized by a decline in memory, thinking, behavior and the ability to perform everyday activities. Ultimately, dementia leads to a loss of independence and an increasing need for support by others.²

Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease that progresses in stages, beginning with a long silent phase before symptoms occur. With a rapidly ageing population, it is a growing public health concern worldwide.³

Download the fact sheet here.



Autism is a spectrumdisorder, which means that the symptoms vary between individuals, ranging from mild to severe. People with autism include those who may have significant intellectual disabilities and may require a high level of support in their daily lives, as well as those who may have an average or high intelligence and those who may require a lower level of support.

People on the spectrum may experience persistent difficulties with social communication and social interaction and restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviours, activities or intense interests.

Download the fact sheet here.



Major depressive disorder (simply known as clinical depression or just depression) is a mental disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. Depression is characterized by extended periods of low mood. It can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems and can negatively affect a person’s personal life as well as sleeping, eating habits, and general health decrease a person’s ability to function at work and at home.

Download the fact sheet here.

A4-Depression-Disease-Fact-Sheet (1)


Epilepsy is a chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures, or periods of unusual behavior, sensations, and sometimes loss of awareness. A seizure is a sudden rush of electrical activity in the brain that temporarily affects how it works. A person is diagnosed with epilepsy if they have two unprovoked seizures that were not caused by some known and reversible medical condition, a single seizure with a high probability of seizure recurrence, or diagnosis of an epilepsy syndrome.

Download the fact sheet here.



Migraine (together with Tension-Type Headache and Medication-Overuse Headache) is the most common, burdensome headache disorders and the most relevant from a public health perspective. These three disorders affect men, women and children in every part of the world, including over half of Europe’s adults.¹ However, headache disorders remain under-diagnosed and under-treated throughout Europe. In terms of funding and research, despite its prevalence, headache is often overlooked by key decision-makers.²

Migraine is a primary headache disorder, probably with a genetic basis. Activation of a mechanism deep in the brain causes release of pain-producing inflammatory substances around the nerves and blood vessels of the head. Why this happens periodically and what brings the process to an end in spontaneous resolution of attacks is uncertain.³

Download the fact sheet here.


Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive disease of the central nervous system where an immune response destroys brain, optic nerve and spinal cord tissue, leading to irreversible motor disability and cognitive impairment over time. Typically, diagnosis occurs between the ages of 20 and 40, greatly impacting a person’s career, income and family life. Affecting over 1.1 million people across Europe, MS brings with it considerable costs to health and social welfare systems, as well as the wider economy in terms of decreased productivity from both people with MS and their carers. The unpredictable and invisible nature of some symptoms makes it particularly challenging to diagnose and manage. Furthermore, the personal and societal impact of MS grows significantly as the condition progresses and disability worsens.

Download the fact sheet here.


Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s is a chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects the motor system and has variable non-motor components including cognitive and autonomic changes.¹

The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are mainly caused by loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain but exactly why dopamine-producing cells become lost is unclear. The Parkinson’s has different symptoms, but the most common are tremor, muscle rigidity and slowness of movement.

Currently there is no treatment available to slow down or reverse the disease. The goal of the treatment is to reduce symptoms with as few side effects as possible.

Download the fact sheet here.



Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder in which individuals experience episodes of ‘psychosis’ which involve symptoms such as hallucinations (hearing voices), delusions (false ideas), disordered thoughts and problems with feelings, behaviour and motivation. In many people symptoms recur or persist long-term, but some people have just one episode¹. It first affects people in the age range of 15-35 years². Most commonly it begins in late adolescence and the early twenties, with later onset in women¹.

Schizophrenia is widely misunderstood with many people believing that those affected have a split or dual personality, which is not the case. The media have also exaggerated the likelihood of violent behaviour amongst schizophrenia patients; a patient is far more likely to be the victim of violent crime than the perpertrator³.

Download the fact sheet here.



A stroke is a serious life-threatening medical condition caused by an interruption of the blood supply to the brain, usually because it is blocked by a blood clot (thrombosis) or a blood vessel bursts (bleeding). This cuts off the supply of oxygen and nutrients, causing damage to the brain tissue resulting in a number of physical symptoms. Disability following a stroke varies greatly depending on factors such as the part of the brain affected, how quickly treatment was given and the extent of the damage to the brain. A very severe stroke can cause sudden death.

Download the stroke fact sheet here.